Name: The Islamic Republic Of Pakistan|
History: Pakistan was part of India before its independence, it became the State of Pakistan when India was partitioned in 1947. This land was invaded by Arabs, Greeks, Persan and Turks. It was a part of India and was under the control of British until it became independent. In the 1971 India-Pakistan war, the Pakistani Army surrendered with over 93,000 of its soldiers being taken POWs. This war resulted in the separation of its eastern half as a new country, Bangladesh.
Location: In the Central Sourthern Asia and is part of the Indian Subcontinent.
Coastline: A thousand kilometer coastline along the Arabian sea in the South.
Border Countries: Afghanistan and Iran in the West, India in the East.
Area: 796,1000 sq km
Population: 153.96 million
Largest city: Karachi
Terrain: In the North lie the mountains of Himalayas, Karakoram and HinduKush and famous Khyber Pass. In the South West is the Baluchistan Plateau - dry and rocky with little vegetation. In the South East is the Sandy Thar Desert which streches from India into Pakistan. In East and Centre of Pakistan is a great plain of Punjab and Sindh. These plains are in the valley of Indus river and its tributaries - Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutluj.
Climate: Pakistan has hot summers and cool winters. Central part is very hot and dry but vast irrigation system allows the cultivation of various crops. Rainfall varies from 20 inch in Eastern Punjb to less than 5 inch in Baluchistan.
Ethnic Group: Punjabis, Sindhis, Pathans and Balochs
Religion: Main religion is Islam, 95% of the population is muslim with 80% Sunni Muslims and 19% shia Muslims, rest are Hindus, Christians, Jews, Sikhs, Ahmadis and Zorastrians.
Language: Urdu is the National language, English is the official language used in the constitution and Punjabi is most widely spoken.
Currency: Pakistani Rupee (PKR)
Time zone: PST (UTC + 5:00)
Internet TLD: .pk
Calling Code: +92
Government: A military dictator, General Pervez Musharraf, is the de facto ruler of Pakistan. Islamic Republic - Parliamentary Form, Parliament has 2 houses The Senate - upper house and The National Assembly - lower house.
Constitution: It was declared Republic on March 23 in 1956. But this constitution has been repeatedly overthrown by a series of military dictators who have ruled Pakistan for a major part of its existence.
Executive Branch: President is the head of the State. At present, General Parvez Musharraf is the self-proclaimed President of Pakistan.
Legislative Branch: Prime Minister is the head of the government. Shaukat Aziz is the prime minister of Pakistan.
Judiciary Branch: The Supreme Court is the highest court. Like the constitution, the authority of the judiciary has repeatedly been usurped by the military rulers and the Pakistan Army.
Flag: It is called Sabz Hilal Parcham - Green Flag with Crescent. Amir-ud-Din Kidwai designed the Flag of Pakistan based on 1906 Flag of All India Muslim league and was adopted on August 11 1947, 3 days before independence. It has dark green field representing Muslims. In the center is white crescent which symbolises progress and white five pointed star symbolising light, knowledge and wisdom.
National Emblem: It was adopted in 1954 which is in green colour with crescent and star at the top representing Muslims. In the center is a shield which has 4 major crops of Pakistan: cotton, jute, tea and wheat representing agriculture. Around the shield is floral wreath of Mughal design, representing history of Pakistan. At the bottom the scroll contains Pakistan National Motto in Urdu language.
National Motto: Iman, Ittehan, Tanzim - Faith, Unity, Discipline
National Anthem: Qaumi Tarana
National Flower: Jasmine
National Tree: Deodar (Cedrus Deodara)
National Animal: Markhor (Capra falconeri)
National Bird: Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar), called Chakor in local language
Calendar: Islamic calander, its ninth month is characterised by day time fasting for 29-30 day called Ramadan, which is followed by Eid-ul-Fitr. Other one is Eid-ul- Adha in remembrance of Abraham. Both the Eid festivals are Public holidays.
National Holidays: Pakistan Day - 23 March
Independence Day: 14 August
Economy: It is a developing country with agriculture adding 20% of GDP, Service Sector - 53% of the country's GDP and Whole Sale and Retail Trade forming - 30% of this Sector. The economy is more or less sustained by massive aid from the United States, Saudi Arabia, China and other western countries.
Agriculture: Cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton and eggs.
Main Export: Cotton and cotton goods, rice, leather, carpet and fish.