Republic of India - Bharat Ganrajya
INDIA is one of the oldest civilisations in the world with a rich cultural heritage. It covers an area of 3.3 million sq km, extending from the snow-covered Himalayas to the tropical rain forests of the south. As the seventh largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.|
Size: With an area of 32,87,263 sq km, India measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km.
Location: The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by Himalayas. India is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south.
Geographic Coordinates: Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends between 8° 4' and 37° 6' latitudes north of the Equator, and 68°7' and 97°25' longitudes east of it.
Indian Standard Time: IST GMT +05:30
Telephone Country Code: +91
Border Countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; Bhutan, China and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
Coastline: 7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
Climate: The climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters. There are four seasons - winter (December-February), (ii) summer (March-June), (iii) south-west monsoon season (June-September), and (iv) post monsoon season (October- November).
Terrain: The mainland comprises of four regions, namely the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region, and the southern peninsula.
Population: India's population, as on 1 March 2001 stood at 1,028 million (532.1 million males and 496.4 million females).
Population Growth Rate: The average annual exponential growth rate stands at 1.93 per cent during 1991-2001.
Life Expectancy Rate: 63.9 years (Males); 66.9 years (Females) (As of Sep 2005)
Sex Ratio: 933 according to the 2001 census
Ethnic Groups: All the five major racial types - Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid find representation among the people of India.
Religions: According to the 2001 census, out of the total population of 1.028 million in the Country, Hindus constituted the majority with 80.5 %, Muslims came second at 13.4%, followed by Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others.
Languages: 22 languages have been recognized by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is the official national language. Besides these, there are 844 different dialects that are practiced in various parts of the Country.
Literacy: According to the provisional results of the 2001 census, the literacy rate in the Country stands at 64.84 per cent, 75.26% for males and 53.67% for females.
Government Type: Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.
Capital: New Delhi
Administrative Divisions: 28 States and 7 Union Territories.
Constitution: The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.
Executive Branch: The President of India is the Head of the State, while the Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet.
Legislative Branch: The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.
Judicial Branch: The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.
Flag Description: The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.
National Bird: Blue Peafowl (Pavo cristatus)
National Animal: Tiger (Panthera tigris)
National Days: 26th January (Republic Day), 15th August (Independence Day), 2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday)
Internet Resources: National Dairy Research Institute, Maruti Udyog Limited